Most names given to crystals and minerals are in reference to their colour, geographical location or mineral content, such as Lithium Quartz, which is so named because it contains Lithium. Blue Calcite is named after the colour. Sichuan Quartz is so called after the Sichuan Province in which is it found.
However there are a lot of crystals which are known by multiple names, either to more accurately describe a particular variety of a mineral, or more make it more appealing to a particular market, often with the aim of driving the price up. It can be extremely confusing to new and experienced buyers alike when a new mineral or crystal appears on the market, only to find out that it's just a fancy new name for a well known one.
Below is a guide to some of the most commonly used names, and what they relate to in geological terms:
Adelaide Ruby - actually a Garnet found in Adelaide, Australia
African Jade - also known as Transvaal Jade, this is actually a type of Grossular Garnet
Alaska Black Diamond - a strange name for Hematite
Amazez - trademarked name for Chevron Amethyst
Amazon Jade - actually Amazonite, not a Jade at all
Amethyst Zebra Stone - dark Chevron Amethyst with bands of white Quartz
Andara Crystals - these are actually just slag glass
Angel Phantom Quartz - a trade name for Amphibole Quartz
Angel Wing Quartz - a trade name for Amphibole Quarz
Aqualite - Apatite in Quartz
Aquatine Lemurian Calcite - a translucent sea blue Calcite. Trademarked by Robert Simmons
Atlantisite - a mixture of Serpentine and Stichtite
Aura Quartz - natural Quartz crystals bonded with precious metals in a vacuum chamber to produce a metallic coating
Auralite 23 - a trademarked name for a variety of usually low quality Amethyst from Canada said to contain 23 different minerals, however many contain between 2-7 different minerals.
Azezulite - quartz crystals with no special defining mineral content. Trademarked by Robert Simmons.
Blue Moon Quartz - a trade name for Dumortierite in Quartz
Bolivianite - may refer to Ametrine, or a mixture of purple Fluorite and green Serpentine
Bumblebee Jasper - a mixture of Calcite, Realgar, Pyrite, Arsenic and Orpiment
Calligraphy Stone - a fossil Jasper, also known as Script Stone
Cherry Quartz - usually smelt coloured glass
Chevron Amethyst - purple Amethyst with bands of White Quartz
Chicken Bone Jade - pale beige/brown Nephrite Jade
Chinese Charoite - purple Fluorite
Chinese Writing Stone - black igneous rock with feldspar inclusions
Chrysanthemum Stone - black rock with white Celestite or Calcite inclusions
Colorado Jade - Amazonite
Common Citrine - heat treated Amethyst. See our article on Citrine for more information!
Crackle Quartz - Clear Quartz which has been super heated and super cooled to crack it
Cradle of Humankind - Agate from South Africa
Crocodile Jasper - another name for Kambaba Jasper, which is actually a volcanic Rhyolite, not a jasper or a fossil.
Crop Circle Flint - flint that has supposedly been found in crop circles
Dianite Jade - a blue rock incorrectly marketed as Blue Jade
Dragon Stone - a mixture of green Epidote and red Piemonite
Dream Amethyst - Amethyst with white Quartz
Dream Quartz - can refer to either Actinolite in Quartz, Epidote in Quartz or Shamanic Dream Quartz/Lodolite
Eclipse Stone - another trade name for Bumble Bee Jasper
Emeraldite - a trade name for Green Tourmaline
Falcons Eye - Red Tigers Eye (Heated)
Fire & Ice Quartz - also known as Crackle Quartz, this is super heated and cooled to produce the crackle effects
Fire Crackle Agate - Carnelian/red banded Agate which has been super heated
Fordite - a stone made up of layers of old car paint
Garden Quartz - commonly known as Lodolite, Shamanic Dream Quartz and Scenic Quartz. These are clear Quartz crystals with mossy looking inclusions
Goddess Stone - another name for Menilite
Golden Healer - Quartz crystals with iron staining
Green Turquoise - most likely Chalsoderite or Faustite, not real Turquoise
Harlequin Quartz - Clear Quartz with (usually) Lepidocrocite inclusions
Hawks Eye - Blue Tigers Eye
Healerite - a light green Serpentine
Herkimer Diamond - bright, double terminated Clear Quartz crystals from Herkimer country, NY
Hilutite - Quartz with inclusions of Garnet, Zircon and Goethite
Himalayan Diamond - also known as Pakimer DIamonds, double terminated Quartz from the Himalayan mountains. Usually less clarity than Herkimers.
Inca Jade - Nephrite Jade with Pyrite inclusions
Inca Rose - another name for Rhodochrosite
Indian Jade - actually Green Aventurine
Infinite - a mixture of Serpentine and Chrysotile
K2 - a mixture of white granite with spots of blue Azurite, from the foothills of the K2 mountain
Kambaba Jasper - another name for Crocodile Jasper, which is actually a volcanic Rhyolite, not a jasper or a fossil.
Korean Jade - green crystals such as Aventurine used in place of Jade
Kundalini Citrine/Kundalini Quartz - Citrine from the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Lapis Lace Onyx - a combination of Scheelite, a tungsten ore, Blue Dolomite and Calcite.
Lemon Quartz - although some natural Lemon Quartz crystals exist (not Citrine), most are lab created irradiated Clear Quartz crystals
Lemurian Crystal - Quartz crystals with horizontal striations, or barcoding patterns
Lizardite - a trade name for Serpentine
Lunar Rose Quartz - a mix of Rose Quartz in dark grey quartz
Luxullianite - a granite rock
Malacholla - a mixture of Malachite and Chrysocolla
Merlinite - a name for a particular pattern of Dendritic Agate
Mexican Onyx - actually a banded Calcite
Moqui Marbles - also known by the name Boji Balls (trademarked) and Shaman Stones, these are iron and sandstone concretions
Mutton Fat Jade - white Nephrite
Mystic Merlinite - a new trade name for Indigo Gabbro
Nerchinsk Aquamarine - a misleading name for Blue Topaz
New Jade - a variety of Serpentine
Night Emerald - a misleading name for Peridot
Oregon Jade - a green Jasper
Pietersite - a mixture of Tigers Eye and Hawks Eye in Quartz
Pressed Amber - reconstituted Amber made by heating and pressing small Amber chips together
Quantum Quattro - a mixture found in Namibia, comprising Shattuckite, Dioptase, Malachite, Chrysocolla in Smoky Quartz
Que Sera - known by another name of Llanite, which is a variety of Rhyolite with blue Quartz crystals
Red Rabbit Quartz - a trade name for Amphibole Quartz
Sacred Heart - also known as Nzuri Moyo, this is a mixture of pink Rhodonite, green Epidote and Clinizoisite
Satyaloka Quartz - Quartz. Trademarked by Robert Simmons.
Scenic Quartz - commonly known as Lodolite, also as Shamanic Dream Quartz and Garden Quartz. These are clear Quartz crystals with mossy looking inclusions
Script Stone - a fossil Jasper, also known as Calligraphy Stone
Seraphinite - a variety of Clinochlore with a feathery, chatoyant appearance
Shamanic Dream Quartz - commonly known as Lodolite, also as Scenic Quartz and Garden Quartz. These are clear Quartz crystals with mossy looking inclusions
Sieber Agate - blue slag glass from old copper mines in Germany
Sunset Sodalite - Sodalite with iron rich feldspar
Super Seven - a trademarked variety of Amethyst said to contain 7 different minerals.
Tiffany Stone - a mixture of purple Fluorite, Quartz, Bertrandite from the Brush Wellman Mines in Utah.
Transvaal Jade - another name for African Jade, which is actually a type of Grossular Garnet
Turquenite - usually dyed blue Howlite
Unakite - a mixture of Red Jasper and Green Epidote
Witches Finger - Quartz with various inclusions that may include Muscovite, Iron, Calcite, Feldspar or Zircon
Wyoming Jade - a trade name for Nephrite Jade